Barrister and Solicitor
Legal Writing and Research
Torts - Negligence - Causation
Martin-Vandenhende v. Myslik (Ont CA, 2015)
In this case the Court of Appeal briefly set out the correct approach to testing for causation of damages in tort:
 The basic test for determining causation is the “but for” test: Clements v. (Litigation Guardian of) Clements, 2012 SCC 32 (CanLII),  2 S.C.R. 181, at para. 8. The plaintiff must show that “but for” the defendant’s negligent act, the injury would not have occurred. Only if “special circumstances” make it impossible to prove “but for” causation and if applying the test “would offend basic notions of fairness and justice” will the “material contribution” test apply: Hanke v. Resurfice Corp., 2007 SCC 7 (CanLII),  1 S.C.R. 333, at paras. 24-25; Clements, at paras. 27-28.