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Remedies - Declarations - Criteria

Daniels v. Canada (Indian Affairs and Northern Development) (SCC, 2016)

In this important native rights case the Supreme Court stated as follows on the criteria required before a declaration of right will be issued by a court:
[11] This Court most recently restated the applicable test for when a declaration should be granted in Canada (Prime Minister) v. Khadr, 2010 SCC 3 (CanLII), [2010] 1 S.C.R. 44. The party seeking relief must establish that the court has jurisdiction to hear the issue, that the question is real and not theoretical, and that the party raising the issue has a genuine interest in its resolution. A declaration can only be granted if it will have practical utility, that is, if it will settle a “live controversy” between the parties: see also Solosky v. The Queen, 1979 CanLII 9 (SCC), [1980] 1 S.C.R. 821; Borowski v. Canada (Attorney General), 1989 CanLII 123 (SCC), [1989] 1 S.C.R. 342.

[12] The first disputed issue in this case is whether the declarations would have practical utility. There can be no doubt, in my respectful view, that granting the first declaration meets this threshold. Delineating and assigning constitutional authority between the federal and provincial governments will have enormous practical utility for these two groups who have, until now, found themselves having to rely more on noblesse oblige than on what is obliged by the Constitution.

[13] Both federal and provincial governments have, alternately, denied having legislative authority over non-status Indians and Métis. As the trial judge found, when Métis and non-status Indians have asked the federal government to assume legislative authority over them, it tended to respond that it was precluded from doing so by s. 91(24). And when Métis and non-status Indians turned to provincial governments, they were often refused on the basis that the issue was a federal one.

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