Administrative Law - Competing Tribunal Jurisdiction. Northern Regional Health Authority v. Horrocks
In Northern Regional Health Authority v. Horrocks (SCC, 2021) the Supreme Court of Canada considered the vexed issue of which legal regime had jurisdiction over a human rights complaint that occured in a employment/labour relations context (another Weber exclusive jurisdiction issue). The issue is similar to that of 'paramountcy' [as in Croplife Canada v Toronto (Ont CA, 2005) but instead of being between competing levels of goverment here it's between competing adjudicators at the same level of government (here a provincial human rights tribunal and a labour arbitrator):
 Labour relations legislation across Canada requires every collective agreement to include a clause providing for the final settlement of all differences concerning the interpretation, application or alleged violation of the agreement, by arbitration or otherwise. The precedents of this Court have maintained that the jurisdiction conferred upon the decision‑maker appointed thereunder is exclusive. At issue in this case, principally, is whether that exclusive jurisdiction held by labour arbitrators in Manitoba extends to adjudicating claims of discrimination that, while falling within the scope of the collective agreement, might also support a human rights complaint.The majority of the court considers these nebulous issues at paras 13-41. In this case the labour relations regime was dominant, but the case softened Weber's exclusivity to allow for as yet undefined exceptions where 'concurrent jurisdiction' exists:
 ... Properly understood, this Court’s jurisprudence has consistently affirmed that, where labour legislation provides for the final settlement of disputes arising from a collective agreement, the jurisdiction of the decision‑maker empowered by that legislation — generally, a labour arbitrator — is exclusive. Competing statutory tribunals may carve into that sphere of exclusivity, but only where that legislative intent is clearly expressed. Here, the combined effect of the collective agreement and The Labour Relations Act, C.C.S.M., c. L10 is to mandate arbitration of “all differences” concerning the “meaning, application, or alleged violation” of the collective agreement (s. 78(1)). In its essential character, Ms. Horrocks’ complaint alleges a violation of the collective agreement, and thus falls squarely within the arbitrator’s mandate. The Human Rights Code does not clearly express legislative intent to grant concurrent jurisdiction to the adjudicator over such disputes. It follows that the adjudicator did not have jurisdiction over the complaint, and the appeal should be allowed.
 Where two tribunals have concurrent jurisdiction over a dispute, the decision‑maker must consider whether to exercise its jurisdiction in the circumstances of a particular case. For the reasons given below, concurrency does not arise in this case. I would therefore decline to elaborate here on the factors that should guide the determination of the appropriate forum.